This Policy Pathway outlines, through the experiences and lessons learned from country examples, the critical elements to put in place a public-private partnership to finance energy efficiency. Accelerating and scaling up private investment in energy efficiency is crucial to exploit the potential of energy efficiency. It focuses on three mechanisms: dedicated credit lines, risk guarantees, and energy performance service contracts.
This document presents the updated IEA 25 Recommendations.
The 25 recommendations have received high-level political and stakeholder support, and resulted in increased implementation. In order to reflect emerging priorities, the IEA, in consultation with international experts and member countries, has streamlined and updated the 25 recommendations.
The updated recommendations cover a robust portfolio of policies that member and non-member countries should consider. This portfolio includes policies to cost-effectively increase energy efficiency by establishing market signals to motivate effective action, accelerate the introduction of new technologies, and strengthen and enforce minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) for appliances, lighting, equipment and building energy codes.
As demonstrated by the March 2011 earthquake and tsunami-triggered blackouts in Japan, electricity shortfalls can happen anytime and anywhere. Countries can minimise the negative economic, social and environmental impacts of such electricity shortfalls by developing emergency energy-saving strategies before a crisis occurs. This new IEA report highlights preliminary findings and conclusions from electricity shortfalls in Japan, the United States, New Zealand, South Africa and Chile.
This roadmap sets out a detailed pathway for the evolution and deployment of key heating and cooling technologies. It finds that urgent action is required if buildings of the future are to consume less energy and result in lower carbon dioxide emissions. The roadmap concludes with a set of near-term actions that stakeholders will need to adopt to achieve low energy buildings.
The IEA is investigating the potential for low-income weatherisation programmes to address poor housing quality - the main driver of fuel poverty - as well as innovative methods for financing and evaluating such programmes. This report presents the outcome of the IEA’s first workshop focused on methods for incorporating the range of co-benefits into evaluation of low-income weatherisation programmes.
Are IEA member countries doing enough to capture the full potential benefits from energy efficiency policy? This innovative report provides the second assessment of IEA member countries’ progress with implementing energy efficiency policy.
Using a rigorous evaluation process, it finds that there have been significant energy efficiency policy developments since the last evaluation conducted in 2009. In particular, IEA member countries have implemented many policies in the transport, appliance and lighting sectors that were only planned in 2009. Nevertheless, IEA member countries still have significant unexploited energy savings opportunities that could be achieved with additional energy efficiency policy implementation.
This paper analyses the impact of phasing-out incandescent lighting policies. The study considers the implications of these policy developments in terms of demand for regulatory compliant lamps and the capacity and motivation of the lamp industry to produce efficient lighting products in sufficient volume to meet future demand. To assess these issues, the paper reviews the historic international screw-based lamp market, describes the status of international phase-out policies, and presents projections of anticipated market responses to regulatory requirements to determine future demand for compact fluorescent lamps.
This policy pathway provides guidance to policy makers and relevant stakeholders on best practice compliance through monitoring, verification and enforcement (MVE) in end-use appliances and equipment standards and labelling (S&L) programmes. It gives a brief overview of MVE and sets out the critical elements for successful implementation.
This paper, which is part of the IEA Policy Pathway series, highlights best practice in implementing building energy label programmes to help policy makers develop robust, accurate and cost-efficient labeling schemes.
This paper reviews global and regional developments in energy consumption in six main energy-consuming sectors including the residential and services sectors. It aims to demonstrate how more effective collection, interpretation and application of data and information can support strategic actions across all energy-consuming sectors.
This book includes a global assessment of the changing pattern in residential electricity consumption over the past decade and an in-depth analysis of the role played by electronic equipment. It reviews the influence that government policies have had on creating markets for more energy efficient appliances and identifies new opportunities for creating smarter, more energy efficient homes. This book is essential reading for policy makers and others interested in improving the energy efficiency of homes.
This paper explores financial barriers to achieving reduction in energy consumption. Through the use of case studies, it provides illustrations of policies and measures which, when implemented, have helped overcome the financial barriers to energy efficiency in existing residential buildings.
This paper reviews improvements in energy efficiency and its role in limiting worldwide global increases in energy use and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. For IEA countries, energy efficiency gains since 1990 have led to annual energy savings of more than 16 exajoules (EJ) in 2005 and 1.3 gigatonnes (Gt) of avoided CO2 emissions. However, the recent rate of efficiency improvement has been much lower than in the past. The good news is that a large potential remains for further energy and CO2 savings across all sectors. In industry alone, the application of proven technologies and best practices on a global scale could save between 1.9 Gt and 3.2 Gt of CO2 emissions per year. In the power generationsector, if all countries produced electricity at current best practice levels, CO2 savings would be between 1.8 Gt and 2.5 Gt per year.
This paper is the first attempt to address the lack of a rigorous and transparent approach to defining best practice in city energy efficiency programmes. The project has provided interesting insights into a range of exciting projects being implemented in cities around the world. However, the potential exists for far greater benefit.
The study has found that it is possible to collate the detailed information needed to identify best practice energy efficiency projects in cities. However, gathering the data is not easy. The data is often not recorded in an easily accessible format. Nor is it easy to get city officials to allocate time to the necessary data collation given the many other competing demands on their time.
A key area that this project identifies as requiring urgent attention is the development of a common data management format for energy efficiency projects by CAs. Further work could also focus on refining the criteria used to define best practice, and broadening the scope of projects beyond energy efficiency.
This paper analyses approaches for encouraging the adoption of energy efficiency in building codes for new buildings, and sets out policy recommendations for enhancing how building codes, and other policies for new buildings, address energy efficiency.
This study's findings emphasise that increased capital availability is not the most important tool in overcoming energy efficiency's financial barrier. It identifies four policy lessons to overcome financial barriers including: seeking engagement from both public and private sectors, adopting packages of multiple policies over the long-term, creating a market for energy efficiency, and strong political will.
This paper investigates the coverage and impact of forms of minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) and comparative energy labelling programmes. The purpose of this paper, which focuses predominantly on electrical equipment used in the residential sector, is to assist governments identify opportunities for implementing national policies to stimulate the adoption of more energy efficient equipment and appliances.
This book provides a detailed analysis of the principal agent problem in achieving improvements in energy efficiency. Based on eight case studies across five OECD countries, the book evaluates the extent of the problem and provides possible solutions to improve energy efficiency.
This paper identifies the technical potential for the energy efficiency improvement of air conditioning in developing countries brought about by the penetration of energy efficient appliances. It explores the barriers to the penetration of energy efficient appliances, and the measures needed to lower these barriers.
This paper presents the findings of a new assessment of the potential for techno-economic and policy-related efficiency improvement in the North American building stock. It provides insights into the lessons learned through a broader global review of best practice to improve the energy efficiency of existing buildings.
This book sets out the broad range of policy measures to encourage efficient lighting that have already been implemented around the world, and it suggests new ways that these could be strengthened.
This paper demonstrates, with the experience of OECD, how China can go forward with concrete activities and actions to improve energy efficiency. This paper reviews the most recent policies, programmes and activities in the field of energy efficiency in typical OECD countries and in China. With a quantitative case study using standby power as an example, the IEA shows how China (and Shanghai) will save electricity and capital investment in the power sector.
Various data has been collected from the Chinese statistics bureau, on-site auditing and interviews with the China Standard Certification Center. A brief economic and financial analysis was undertaken for the case study. This paper concludes that promoting energy efficient standby devices in China will be financially and economically viable. It will avoid or postpone investments of 8 or 9 large Chinese power plants, each with the capacity of 1 gigawatt.
This paper explores the barriers to the diffusion of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) and identifies policies that governments can implement to capture the benefits of CFLs and overcome these barriers.
This paper identifies a Europe-wide cost-effective energy saving potential of 28% from energy-efficient refurbishment of existing high-rise residential buildings and explores the barriers to achieving this saving potential. Using case studies it highlights practical approaches for effective refurbishment.
This paper considers electrical appliances for home and office, which are produced and consumed in large and increasing numbers in industrialised and, increasingly, in developing economies. While international standards for defining and testing for the energy performance of those appliances exist, they differ for each appliance and in practice are not universally applied. This paper notes progress made at the regional and international levels to harmonise these standards.
But for products exhibiting large regional variation, differentiating more from less efficient models at the multilateral level - a necessary condition for co-ordinated tariff reductions in the WTO - is more difficult. However, work towards harmonising test procedures for measuring the energy performance of household and office electrical appliances would in itself help to lower non-tariff barriers affecting energy-efficient goods, which may be more important than lowering tariffs.
This book describes why temporary shortages of electricity supplies occur even in the wealthiest countries with the most sophisticated electricity networks. Most shortages are local, minor and easily addressed. But, in other cases, the shortages persist for days, weeks, or even years and involve millions of people. The reasons for these shortages are incredibly diverse: from forest fires to safety problems at power stations, from problems in electricity market liberalisation to heat or cold waves. These events can happen anywhere and they do. The results are blackouts, brownouts and other curtailments on electricity consumption.